Question Answer
What illness may compromise a patient the ability to heal? Diabetes
What illness may cause bleeding complications or an inability to metabolize some prescribed medications? Liver Disease
A patient with thyroid and adrenal disease may not have the ability to do what? Under go anesthesia and respond to stress
Kindness disease may prevent what from being eliminated from the body______________and resulting in what___________? Medication and toxic drug effects
What is the name for a clotting disorder? Blood dyscrasias
Dysuria Painful urination
Polyuria Frequent urination
Hematuria Blood in the urine
What is ischemia? Decrease in blood flow in the coronary arteries
Atherosclerosis is what When plaque builds up over time to a point the the line of the artery becomes narrow
When large clots form and totally occluded the artery? Thrombosis
Why would a patient be on Lipitor? To reduce cholesterol
Why would a patient be on Plavix? To prevent formation of blood clots
Why would a patient be on lopressor? To reduce the effects of excessive adrenergic stimulation of the heart
A patient who has had a MI should wait how long to have elective surgery 6 months
If a patient has had beta-hemolytic streptococci what do the have? Rheumatic heart Disease
What does MVP stand for?
What is an Atrial Fibrillation? There are rapid deflection of the baseline and no P waves. This is accompanied by an irregular ventricular rate.
Hyperthyroidism, muscular, dystrophy, various musculoskeletal, and connective tissue disorder all have in common? They could all be associated with MVP
What is antibiotic prophylaxis? Premeditation with an antibiotic
If the left side of the heart fails to pump blood out into circulation and causes blood to back up into the lungs what would you have? Left-sided heart failure
If the right side of the heart fails to pump blood efficiently to the lungs causing blood to back up in the peripheral circulation what would you have? Right -sided heart failure
When the heart's inability to handle the blood volume coming back to it either from the lungs or from the peripheral circulation? Congestive heart failure (CHF)
What is congenital heart disease? A cardiac disease caused by a defect in the heart structure present at birth
All of the wave forms are present including the P, QRS, and T waves. There is a regular rate of 60-100 beats per min. The pr interval is less then 1 large box and the QRS less than 1/2 of a large block in width. Normal sinus Rhythm
All the wave forms are present, but the rate is irregular? Sinus Arrhythmia
Similar to normal sinus rhythm except for the rate. This has a rate of less than 60 bpm? Sinus Bradycardia
Similar to the normal sinus rhythm except for the rate. This has a rate of 100 but but usually less then 150? Sinus tachycardia
This rhythm has a regular rate of 150-250. The QRS are narrow , but the P and T waves often merge so that they cannot be discerned as separate waves? Supraventricular Tachycardia
Mitral valve prolapse
When there several flutter waves preceding each QRS, often in a ratio of 3 or 4 waves per QRS? Atrial flutter
If a P wave is inverted with a short PR interval? Junction Rhythm with P waves
What is Junction rhythm with no P wave? The P wave is buried the QRS
What is Premature Atrial Contraction (PAC) You would have early depolarization of the atria creating short beat.
What is Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) There is early depolarization from an ectopic focus in the ventricles creating a short beat. The QRS is wide and often bizarre with no preceding P wave.
If a pt. Had two or more ectopic do I which produce different shaped PVC what would they have? Multifocal PVC
When a pt. Has couplets that consist of two PVC's in a row and runs three or more? Couplet and Runs
Ventricular tachycardia to ventricular fibrillation? Wide QRS with no P waves and T waves are buried with in the QRS the rate usually 140-200
The initial rhythm is fine ventricular fibrillation with small erratic defection of the baseline then the VF is followed by astrology. Ventricular fibrillation to asytole
What is the first corresponds the the contraction of the atria? P Wave
What represents the contraction the the ventricular? QRS complex
What is the repolarization of the ventricular T Wave
Where are the SA nobes located? Right Atrium
Where is the AV none located? Inferior portion of the right atrium
What is Bundle of His? Atrioventricular bundles
Where is the Bundle of His located? In the right and left ventriculars
The PR interval from the beginning of the P Wave the the beginning of the R wave is what? Less than the width of 1 wide Block 200 milliseconds or 0.2 seconds.
The QRS complex is quite narrow and has a width of less then what? 1/2 of one large block approximately 100 milliseconds or 0.1 seconds
What has the ability to generate an impulse that can radiate through adjacent heart tissue?
Sometimes in a normal sinus rhythm impulse by the SA node (the pace maker) discharges with generation of an impulse can occur in other parts of the heart as well. What is this called? Ectopic foci
Superaventricular Rhythms and ventricular Rhythms are? Dysrythmias
What ventricular Rhythm often leads to a dire consequences? Arrest rhymes
What are your Hs in ACLS Hypovolemia, hypoxia, hydrogen, hypo-hyperkalemia, hypoglycemia, hypothermia
What are the Ts in ACLS Toxins, Tamponade, tension pneumothorax, thrombosis, trauma
What is an AV block? There is consistency long PR interval with no missed beats.
What is it called when there is a progressively increasing PR interval followed by a missed beat? AV Block type 1
What is an AV block II? When the impulse has considerable difficulty passing through the AV junction and there are multiple missed beats.
What is it called when the impulse never conducts from the atria into the ventricles and the atria and ventricles contract independent of one another leading to highly variable PR interval? AV Block III
What does COPD stand for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Atrial flutter? A chaotic circular conduction path creates a saw tooth baseline of fitter waves
What need to to be present when determining a Rhythm? QRS complexes
Where is the pacemaker located if the QRS is narrow? In the atria
If the QRS is wide the pacemaker is where? In the ventricles
What is one way to determine the rate? Dividing 300 by the number of large boxes between R waves.
What is the other way to determine the rate? Use a number sequence consisting of two triplets 300, 150, 100, 75, 60, 50.
Atrioventricular blocks (AV Blocks) are classified as what? 1st degree 2nd degree and 3rd Degree depending upon their severity with 3rd degree being the most severe.
What is Emphysema Enlargement of the alveolar sac in the lungs, along with destruction or scarring of the alveoli
What is predominant presenting symptom in PT. With emphysema? Dyspnea ( breathless or difficulty in breathing with puffing)
How long does a cough have to be gone for with a PT. With URI ( upper respiratory infection) 2-3 weeks
What is diabetes mellitus? A chronic disorder with impaired metabolism of glucose resulting in elevated books glucose levels Hyperglycemia
What does Islets of Langerhans produce? Insulin and glucagon
If a patient has frequent urination, excessive thirst and hunger and recent weight change what could they have? Diabetes
What are the symptoms of poorly controlled diabetes? Sweating , mental confusion and fruity order to their breath.
A patient who is diabetic may not be what? Heal as quickly and has a higher risk of infection
What is the adequate control usually for a fasting blood sugar level? Less the 125mg/dL
What is the normal life Span of red blood cells? Approximately 120 days
What is Hypoglycemia? Lowered blood glucose
What are symptoms of hypoglycemia? Sweating, nervousness, irritability, tremor, confusion and hunger
If a Patient has abnormally high levels of the hormone cortisol what do they have? Cushing disease
What are symptoms of Cushing's Disease? Humped upper back ( BUFFALO HUMP) round face (MOON FACE) thick skin and easy bruising
What is cortisol? Cortisol is a steroid hormone, known as a glucocorticoid, made in the cortex of the adrenal glands.
What is Addison's disease? A Pt. That can not Respond to minor or physical or mental stress pt. They could have patches of skin oral mucosa,Usually will take croisone. Pt experience wight loss
If a Pt takes a large doses of corticosteroids such as prednisone what would they have? Adrenocortical insufficiency
What is hypothyroidism? deficient activity of the thyroid gland
What is levothyroxine (synthroid) used for Hypothyroidism
What is Graves disease? To much hormone released. enlarged thyroid, a rapid pulse, and increased basal metabolism due to excessive thyroid secretion; exophthalmic goiter.
What is goiter an enlargement of the thyroid gland on the front and sides of the neck, usually symptomatic of abnormal thyroid secretion, especially hypothyroidism due to a lack of iodine in the diet.
What is a thyroid crisis untreated or undertreated hyperthyroidism. individual's heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature can soar to dangerously high
How many hepatitis is there? 6 types (A B C D E and G)
Hep A Water and food
Hep B Sexually transmitted
Hep C 50% is from drugs
What is liver disease? Any condition that damages the liver and prevents it from functioning well.
What is edema? effusion of serous fluid into the interstices of cells in tissue spaces or into body cavities.
Acute renal failure? kidneys suddenly can't filter waste from the blood.
Chronic renal failure? Longstanding disease of the kidneys leading to renal failure.
What is AV Fistula? An abnormal connection between an artery and a vein.
Med's used for seizure's Tegretol, klonopin, neurontin, Dilantin, depacon.
What is TIA ( transient ischemic attack)? Temporary blockage of blood supply to the brain
What is the 3rd leading cause of death in the U.S? Stroke
What is the two forms of Stokes? Ischemic & Hemorrhagic
85% due to occluded blood vessel? Ischemic
15% due to ruptured artery or aneurysm Hemorrhagic
When can you use GA on a pregnant women? Middle Trimester
How should you position a Pregnant women who may become lightheaded or consciousness? on her side or flat with the head slightly down